Episode 15 : Role of India on Bhutanese Issue


Tilak Niraula reads a report from Goldhap followed by an exclusive report by Tulasha Ghimire. CP Gajurel expresses his opinion before a short break. The second part is Bidesi Chautari of TP Mishra from New York City.



    FORMER SURVEYOR, SURVEY OF BHUTAN-THIMPHU (present address-669 RIVERSIDE AVENUE BURLINGTON VERMONT.05401-PHONE802 658 5436(United States of America) e-mail [email protected]
    Hello everyone, once again I would like to bring your vision towards the continuation of my last part of life story analyzation in Bhutan, and eighteen years of staying in refugee camps, Nepal too. I have been explained here my last period of Bhutan by giving many interesting miracles of primitive Bhutan and peoples’ challenges to subdue the suzerainty and integrity of the land of Thunder Dragon to preserve the glory of real history of the country. Albeit my last natures for different visited areas in Bhutan and the real subjects of leaving my original home, and travel to refugee camps Nepal with my entire family and the survival of more than eighteen years in there. Consequently the descriptions are made, referring to Bhutan by its natural appearances,Dzongs,rivers mountain and my friends,co-workers and touring areas of Bhutan and the adventures of my last destination to Refugee Camps in Nepal. I believed that it would have been given a credible evolutionary facts without further skepticism for the national and international diplomats about the fundamental human rights branded by the present Bhutanese bureaucracy and playing blind fold games in front of the outer world for the people of minorities in Bhutan.
    I was continued my challenges in Thimphu during 1983-84 working in the areas of Thimphu,Paro, Punakha and Wangduphodrang for local land survey and settlements under these Dzongkhags.Once I went to Punakha for the land survey with the speaker of National Assembly, namely Dasho Kinley Dorji(called Dasho Ka-lyon in Dzongkha) to his home town Above Punakha Dzong along the bank of Phochhu River. As there was no motorable road from Punakha Dzong. We had started walking from Punakha following the pathway by crossing Mochhu River enjoying every beautiful panoramic scenarios of the historical views of the hills,mountains,land situations and natural events during the times before the arrival of Zhabdung Ngawang Namgyal in Punakha Dzong. A real permanent picture portrayal of passed urine rivulated, as symbolic legendary of Lam Drup Kinley on the top of big rocky flat stone at the middle of our way towards the village of Dasho Ka-lyon and the bank of Phochhu River. We got rest there for few minutes and observed that symbol. Dasho explained me about the details of that exciting natural perspective of urinated portraying as exact pictures metaphorically. Since 1000 & 1000 of years, still it was remained fabulous to that stones.

    Let me say briefly about super lama Drup Kinley, as per Dasho Kinley Dorji’s saying-he was a superman or celestial Lama came to Punakha in and around the time of Zhabdrung from Tibet. He was very much a funny man and hosted in Punakha Dzong contemporarily during his visit to Punakha areas. At that time there were the myth of ghost/witches Empires everywhere in Northern Bhutan and Punakha too. Indeed! he was only a superman there, and spirit of Monster or ghost reacted him every now and then during his stays in Punakha, not only that, probably he had to be killed . So he further planned to run back to Tibet again, he had started going back from there, the mirages of sucking blood by spiritual ghost was followed him ,though he ran very fast, however the Monster/ ghost hadn’t stopped to goad him to be killed unless he ran fast aiming to reach to the border of Tibet. At last, he reached in one CHHORTEN near the border of Tibet.(CHHORTEN meant small stone built, symbol of Budhism,Budhist people built everywhere on the walking path within their villages, it is the place of avoidance of tiredness or rest places for long walks, which is called CHHORTEN in Dzongkha) He had worn long type of Tibetan cultural shoes, covering below the knees. He quickly created a superficial ideas , as at once take out the both shoes from the feet and kept them opposite at the top of that Chhorten,really,its looks like overturned the man inside it, showing sole of the shoes above, from the top of the Chhorten,just to trick and make the Monster/ghost fool ,it was believable for them, that lama dup kinley to whom followed by them gone inside the Chhorten.Reluctantly the Ghost weird to find out the man again and avoided to chase him more from there. In this nature, Lama saved his life and returned back to Tibet from Punakha during his visits.


    This was the legendary myth of that stones explained by Dasho Kinley Dorji to me during my short journey to Punakha Dzongkhag to survey the land of the villages of Kabjisa,Botokha and Shyangana under punakha Dzong. After few minutes of rest, we again continued our walk to reach to our destination. That day we halted there and from tomorrow morning we had started land measurement works, which was taken 2-3 days there and shifted other villages too. Almost I was been there one week to complete the above three villages in Punakha and then I had returned back to Thimphu. Let me state in brief about the river Phochhu-Mochhu’s natural structures, colors and confluenced together forming triangular diagram and making Punakha Dzong in the cone of the two rivers. Punakha Dzong is also one of the oldest Dzong of Bhutan. I couldn’t even explain everything, but what I have personally seen there, only eye witnessed is added in my personal story here.As it is admirable that two very big rivers were flowing down from both the sides of the Dzong.Oneside river is called MOCHHU which is coming from China border and its water is deep green. One suspension bridge is constructed from the end of the motorable road to the Dzong premises to go to the Dzong everyday. Another side river is called PHOCHHU and also its sources were in China border, its water is white, like limestone water. The differences of water colors are really expressing, something is historical influences in and around the surroundings of the Punakha Dzong. Signifying the above names, PHOCHHU/MOCHHU or male and female are exactly descriptive and nomenclature by detecting its water peculiarities accordingly. The River coarses from the confluences headed towards south and called PUNA-SANGCHHU up to Wangdiphodrang,then for the same River is called SANKOSH going south to Tshirang- Dagana-Maurey,Kalikhola International border of Indo-Bhutan and entered into the vast plain lands of Assam(India) that is why, the Assam is fertile land.
    Thereafter, I was in Thimphu by continuing the local survey works, in different Dzongkhags, like Paro, Wangduphodrang, Haa etc… Unless the long duties scheduled by the end of the year 1984. These were the specific assignments during I had been in Thimphu for the above years. It was, of course my enjoyable life in the Capital with the appreciative jobs too. Almost of two years staying in Thimphu, after1984 again I had been transferred to Dagana Dzongkhag for the land re-settlement works to the different Gewogs of that Dzongkhag. The road construction works from Tshirang to Dagadzong was not fully completed, it was under constructions. There was only rough road and it was hard to drive the motor in that newly constructed road. No regular passenger bus were there from Tshirang, however rarely some private trucks were used to go, if necessary in winter time, but not in summer. There was one Short cut from Tshirang going down to Sankosh River crossing and again upwards climbing to the hill through Changkha(Jinchila) villages, continue climbing to reach the mountain top and next side again getting little bit down to enter Khibesa Gewog and reach Gipsa villages and following the same directions to reach Dagachhu.Dagachhu is below DagaDzong,it takes minimum one hour by climbing up the hill to reach to DagaDzong.Almost we had to walk from Tshirang to DagaDzong by Short-cut, minimum 15 hours on foot. It was excited that I had reached Daga Dzongkhag Administration for the proposes mentioned above accordingly.
    Mr. Karma Dorji Sherpa were the Dzongdag of the DzongkhagAdministration Dagadzong of that time, I met him and explained everything about my visits there ,and set up my strength for long term stays in DagaDzong. For different modes Daga dzong was a remote Dzongkhag. There were five Gewogs, every Gewogs have no any road transportation, if we move from one Gewog to anothers , it takes one day journey or sometimes two, to reach everywhere to the different Gewogs. One of the Gewog, namely Kali had its rough roads in the middle of the villages, it was little bit easier and nearer than others from the Dzong.
    This was the mountainous regions, everywhere surrounded by high mountains. The Dzong, itself was constructed at the top of the mountain hills, several feet deep down, at the bottom of that hill , there were rivers from both the sides flowing towards south. Ninety percent of the land covered by the natural forests and less populated areas. Different ethnicities of people were living together-such as Ngalongs,Khengpas,Nepalis etc.. There is a big mountain, called DAGALA,which the District boundaries of Thimphu and Daga Dzong are separated too, by that mountain. It is snow clad regions in winter time with varies of climatic condition during monsoon seasons. There is treasure of the rocks, difficult terrains, debris etc. in every ranging distant interval of the places. Since 1985 I was being a land surveyor under Daga Dzongkhag Administration for the land survey works to be covered to the entire land survey activities within that Dzongkhag.
    I had been there more than two years for all land surveying activities and moved around almost of the Gewogs and surveyed the lands. Once I had gone to Bana Gewog to survey the areas there for the landless people(Sukumbasi) area was very big and the location of the land were very tough, as ridges,debris,terrains and deep streams etc., in Balung resettlement project. However we had begun our works by clear felling the survey lines around the areas by the contours survey methods. Mr.Kamal,surveyor was my partner for the entire resettlement plotting for the convenient of individual land allotments.Mr.Sangchu Dukpa was the Gup of that Gewog. It takes more than two months to complete the whole areas. So we had allotted the land there by the above processes and returned back to our places. Of course, I had to continue my professional activities periodically under the close cooperation of Dzongkhag administration to other various Gewogs. Though I had functioned my daily assignments within that period very effectively. Also there was another Dzongdag, in later than Mr. Karma Dorji, he was namely, BACHHAP DORJI, as Dzongdag-Dagadzong. He was there at my last staying unless I leave from Dagadzong. At last I left Dagadzong by the end of 1986 and moved to Thimphu, Office of the survey of Bhutan.
    Again, I would like to explain one memorable things is that, from the beginning the Office of survey was named as, CHIEF OF SURVEY-Dasho SONAM RABGYE were the chief of the Departments, he was very much energetic man and originally he was born in Tibet. Since Chinese aggression in 1950 his dynasty were split in Tibet and came to Bhutan. He was from rich family in Tibet and his significance to Bhutan were superior too, like he had indicated Bhutan-China border focused as permanent boundary aligning by two immortal mountain JHOMOLHARI and KULAGANGRI and he was the figure head about the northern Bhutan, because Tibet and northern Bhutan had its same allies and cultural ties. Substantially, from the beginning there were many other working missions in Survey Department: – They were Mr. Babu Dubba, Mr.Sangey Rinchen,Mr. Nata Gyaltshen,Mr.Rajman Rai,Mr.Lok bahadur Thapa,Mr.Lam Dorji,Mr.Bhim Bahadur Bomjan,Mr.Bal bahadur Subba,Mr.Kul Bahadur Packwal, Mr.Tarabir Karki,Mr.Janga bahadur Monger,Mr.Lepola Dukpa,Mr. Dorji Wangchuk Dukpa,Mr.Latuk Dorji, Mr.Dilip Gurung,Mr.Lok nath Pradhan,Mr.Man bahadur Subba,Mr.Chirap Dorji, Mr. Tshewang Dorji,Mr.Dungkhala,Mr.Chhoekki Wangchuk, Mr.Tsheten Namgyal,Mr.Dawa Tamang,Mr.Kul bahadur Pradhan Mr.Phurba Dukpa Mr.S.N.pokhrel, myself etc,etc…they were the beginners and coriolis force to establish Survey Department Bhutan and headed majestically with the companionship of Dasho Sonam Rabgye facing and forcing different kind of complex situation and barriers of that consecutive periods. Obviously to be made more indicative and apparent, since 1984 the above same name of survey department continued as SURVEY OF BHUTAN headed by the Surveyor General,Mr.Pema Wangchuk who was the Director General of Agriculture Department before. Then there were other staff, namely Mr.Sither Namgye,Mr.Ugen Wangchu,Mr.Thizang Wangdi,Mr.Minjur,Mr.Sonam,Mr.Samling and many others, with the existing staffs of survey department.(My personal references from survey department, more than sixteen year of services are pasted here)

    Hence I was remained in the office Thimphu for the certain number of years unless my retirement period by functioning the same nature of the particular duties for the local land survey activities and at last I gave up and relieved from my more than sixteen years service of Survey department on 15.7.1987 and moved to my native villages, GOPENI-DUNGLAGANG-TSHIRANG BHUTAN and performed my own affairs to sustain my family in organized ways, enticing for better future too. In that time I had only one kids to nurture and most of the time my wife and myself targeted to achieve towards the improvement of ongoing or primitive systems of farming, as other neighbors were doing. Moreover I had opened a grocery shop in my own land, investing handsome money expected to increase my income more from the invested amounts. In other hand, we were very fond of farming exercises, for the cultivation of different kinds of seasonal crops aiming for maximum yielding simultaneously. In this way, I had been there with my six family members(they were, my mother, wife, two daughters and one son and myself) in my original home GOPENI-DUNGLAGANG since 1987 facing often scarce remote village situation of that time. The southern Bhutan situation from 1985 was little bit scary or unusual, because of first general census enumeration by RGOB was begun. Though the People of southern Bhutan were excited and fed up, searching CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN (CO) and categorized people in six categories, from F1-F6,(F-means foreigner, as already explained and illustrated in different National and international news or in papers clearly, I don’t have to describe and include more in my personal pictures) as per the census mission’s direction. However I dare to launch my pre-plan meticulously, in coming days to fulfill desire and hopes and illuminated my future. I thought, “Landslide couldn’t wash to entire realm”. Henceforth, having revivifying among the catastrophic whirlwind to the ongoing years, another census enumeration was started in 1988,that was more severe than that of 1985.
    People of southern Bhutan were more frustrated by being facing the above situations during the time. Many other problems were created by 1985 census ,like banning of Nepali subjects and books were burnt down in the school, which was the mother tongue of southern Bhutanese, the etiquette of wearing dress like national dress instead of costume dress,(i.e.Gho and Kira) wherever we are, and to perform other cultural activities under the prior approval of the government was a compulsion before performing any cultural functions. Speaking Dzongkha and writing too, was made as an obligatory subjects to every common people in general. In this way people were suffering and getting restlessness with these strange environments. Absolutely, as far as I knew, the main cause of mass eviction- that people had planned to appeal to the government for the above basic fundamental functions as usual, by organizing people’s movement without any interferences to the constitutions, expecting that appeal will be heard. They have organized a peaceful demonstration and submitted a written appeal to the government as well. Extremely the replies of the public appeal were resulted after one month, the military visited in every corner of the remote villages and arrested the common people who were settled since generation and taken to the barracks and tortured, rape and many other inhuman punishments. All schools of southern Bhutan were closed and made army barracks. Government doesn’t trust to anyone of the southern Bhutanese, the home was not secured, because in the midst of the night unknown people were used to come with gun, like military and also harassed to the innocent households and made them scapegoat ,so situation was soaring higher and higher. Often some People started bunking leaving their valuable properties, and some people was called by Dzongkhag Administration and forced them to leave the country by paying meager compensation within the ordinance issued. At that time, Dzongdag Tshirang was SHERAP DORJI – 1990.Accordingly the situation have been elapsed and was branded, then the present model of Bhutanese bureaucracy’s GNH is completely unsatisfactory.
    These above ample natures also included to me and my family in the high tide eviction by leaving everything there in my country of origin, Bhutan in 1990 where I was born and nurtured and rendered uncountable contributions to my country and made her sovereign until the age of thirty five years. I had been adhered to be a refugee in the Refugee Camp for more than eighteen years in Nepal country JHAPA Goldhap Refugee Camp under the following conditions.

    After the eviction from the country in 1990 I reached in Maidhar, Jhapa Districts-Nepal Country. Actually the month was March 1990,I was being participated with my family, kids in the mass exodus to the sandy places of Maidhar River and made a canopy to live there-I bought some bamboo for the poles and ropes to tighten canopy for bewildering settlements. Day time the sands was like a burning coals, no any leaves for shadows were there, body skin burnt and turn into black colors and night a terrible hurricane storming to the canopy,supposed,if we do pull the rope during storming, the catcher of the rope flying like a kite,” flies in the sky”. Every night we had suffered from the storming hurricane and day time suffering from burning sun. Maximum people suffered from the sickness of Diarrhea and Dysentry,all under ages children were malnourished , also were died. Thirty five to forty deaths were occurred daily and the situation was violent. My three kids were only the ages of six-four-two, so they were telling to go back to the original home Bhutan,saying,”starts go, at once”. Every now and then everyone have diarrheas-no any hide, we must excreted the feces in an open ground. That was the terrible situation faced by us in Maidhar River-Nepal for about six months.
    United Nation High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) had just started to manage the violent situation of emergency for more than hundredths thousandths of people there donating enormous fundamental needs to the sufferer for humanitarian grounds of that time. Indeed! It was a really great pleasure to have a bid of provocative action by UNHCR contemporarily. They have proposed seven Refugee Camps in different places of Jhapa Districts, Eastern Nepal country with prompt action to take the people to the newly proposed camps in organized ways immediately. The 7 camps were Goldhap,Pathri, Beldangi-I—II—III and T-Mai of Jhapa and Morang Districts of Country Nepal. So we have been saved such an episodic ways in Refugee Camps. Usually, the manageable camps had started and different International agencies have participated for the challenges to fulfill the adequate needs for the numerous people of the camp. The agencies were SAVE THE CHILDREN FUND(UK) for the health management programs, CARITAS(JESUIT REFUGEE SERVICES,ASIA) for the management of education programs,LUTHERN WORLD SERVICES-later which was being FEDERATION for the infrastructures management programs in the camps, INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS SOCIETY for the management of food assistance programs and many other, like ASIAN MEDICAL DOCTORS’ ASSOCIATION (AMDA, NEPAL) for more substitutions under the umbrella organization of UNHCR.
    They have started their programs for different fields in new established seven Refugee Camps and begun their program giving more volunteer opportunities to the refugee people too, to serve under them. I had also an opportunity to serve, voluntarily in different sections in Goldhap camp. First of all I had started under Save the Children Fund(UK) to render my services to the health section for the supports of our people for the health activities from 1992-1995.Agency had welcomed to involved me in the health training program and made me a trained health worker and I had worked more than four years under the health department. In other hand, the Camp rules were made by the UNHCR for the regularization of the whole camp in unique ways.

    (As a proof one HEALTH certificate from camp base SCF –U.K. is displayed here)

    There was democratic election system and people elected me by polling ballot votes in democratic ways as a camp representative(Camp Secretary) in 1996 for one year period to build up the link with different organizations in relation to bridge-up the gap with Agencies for entire programs in the Camp. (Appreciation of UNHCR for one year volunteer services, 1996 are here)

    So I have engaged one year for the above post voluntarily and then after one year my terms was over. Though I have a great opportunity provided by the Agency CARITAS to move to the Camp education sector under them. Significantly I have rendered my volunteer services about seven years.(i.e. From 1998 to the end of 2005) as a general teacher.Moreover,I have an extra opportunity to upgrade my personal education level which was slash out and adamant in Bhutan, to which, nonetheless I had continued my venerable subjects, because of different barriers and unsuitable environment for further study of my higher education there, in Bhutan.
    Simultaneously, I had joined higher secondary education in 1998 through Blooming Lotus English School (BLES) corresponding to Adarsh Madhyamik Vidyalaya, west Bengal siliguri (India) by yearning dilema. Because Siliguri,West Bengal was very closed from our camp,Goldhap,Jhapa Districts, and it would have been convenient to be attended the classes routinely and was being completed at the end of 1999.Henceforth,I moved to the Colleges of PARIMAL MITRA SMRITI MAHA VIDYALAYA of the University of North Bengal, India steadily by the year of 2000 for three years bachelors and had completed at the end of 2003.Almost it had taken more than four years to obtain my bachelors education from there. I would be grateful to CARITAS NEPAL for her precious supports towards my intention of glorious personal education ensemble during my tough times. Having been doing teaching job there in the year of 2006,again I have been elected as a Camp Representative (Camp Secretary) for one more year period and I have again reached to my old places and reinstated the same guidelines and executed for another year,i.e. the end of 2006 and ended the specified terms too.

    (Appreciation of UNHCR for another year of 2006, as Camp representative are displayed here)
    Having seen the consequences by CARITAS NEPAL and lack of capable manpowers, I have been re-employed to the BLES(extension School) Goldhap Camp as an extension In- charge(like co-worker) to cover overall activities of the Extension School with the precious help of more than fifty other teachers and eighteen hundred pre-school students in the year of 2007 or by July 2008 respectively.
    (Certificates of several years volunteer services under CARITAS Nepal/ JESUIT REFUGEE SERVICES are displayed here)

    Almost of my deliberate life descriptions are going to end in this time for sometimes we’re called to do great things. But as a saint of our times has said, “Every day we are called to do small things with great love.” The years and changes accumulate, but the themes of my above lines, would know: our birthplace’s grand story of courage and its simple dream of dignity. I am not this story’s author, who fills time and eternity with the purpose. However, never tiring, never yielding, never finishing I renewed the purpose, to make the identity more rigid just and generous, to affirm the dignity of our lives and every life. This work continues, the story goes on, and an angel still rides in the whirlwind and directs the storm.
    Thanks everyone.
    Hopefully, I will be able to write, how we made a new home within this new country in near future.

    God bless to everyone, God bless to America